Archive for Ministry of Defence

Time To Disband Our Armed Forces?

Posted in Afghanistan, America, Britain, England, European Union, Human Rights, Justice, Terrorism, Terrorists, UK with tags , , , , on 25/10/2013 by floroy1942

We are heading for a situation where Britain cannot send our armed forces into combat in the air, on the seas or the land. Why? Because commanders dare not send an airman, sailor or soldier into a situation where he might get killed or wounded for fear of ending up in court.

This is all the result of taking both the Human Rights Charter and the Health and Safety laws too far, and the rampant ‘compensation culture’ currently prevalent in the United Kingdom today. This has been proven by families making compensation claims against the Ministry of Defense (MoD) for soldiers either wounded or killed in Iraq and Afghanistan who took the MoD to court and won!

Challenger Tank

Challenger Tank

Let me give you some examples: In 2003 a Challenger tank was hit by ‘friendly fire’ and as a result two soldiers died and two more were injured. The two survivors, and the families of the dead men were allowed to sue the MoD for negligence claiming insufficient training of the men. During the case, the families lawyers argued that although their deaths occurred on the battlefield, they did not happen in the “fog of war”, but were related to a decision about equipment made in the UK. My goodness, they were in a tank for crying out loud, what sort of equipment should the MoD have given them?

None of them realized that such an incident is always a possibility in the heat of battle, as has been amply demonstrated in every conflict, including the First and Second World War. Ask the American’s about ‘friendly fire’? They know more about it than anyone else, but it is a factor that all soldiers have to live with in war.

On Patrol

On Patrol

In 2006 two soldiers were killed when their land-rover was blown up by a roadside bomb. While I have the greatest sympathy with the relatives of the two men I find it intolerable that this case was allowed to take place. The families case rested on the fact that the two soldiers were not properly protected from a roadside bomb because their vehicle was insufficient for the job. Perhaps in their minds all our soldiers should go on patrol in a tank?

The MoD tried to get the cases thrown out because of the so-called combat immunity and the incidents did not take place in the UK. The idea of HR and H&S regulations applying to serving soldiers is just too ridiculous for words. It is bad enough that these people got our government to agree that a member of our Armed Forces could not open fire on anyone until they themselves were shot at. So in effect, if you turn a corner and there is an insurgent with his AK47 aimed at you, you cannot defend yourself until he fires first. In most cases that is a certain death sentence, but there again, the family will always be able to claim compensation from the MoD so that’s alright then!

Defusing an I.E.D.

Defusing an I.E.D.

Before anyone starts asking the question, I did my time in the Forces (12 years) and was in the thick of it so let’s not have any ‘holier-than-thou’ comments from the self righteous idiots who don’t even know which end of a rifle the bullet comes out.

Tom Tugendhat, who co-wrote the report said: ‘Over the past decade, legal steps based on the European Convention on Human Rights have undone safeguards Parliament drew up to ensure military commanders have the freedom of manoeuvre to make vital decisions on the ground. The armed forces neither are, nor should be, above or exempt from the law. But, imposing civilian norms on the military is deeply misplaced’. Quite correct Sir!

According to the report, the MoD faced 5,827 claims in 2012-13 and lawyers cost the cash-strapped ministry £36 million a year. That is all coming out of the tax payers pocket, and is money that could be better spent on giving our fighting forces the best equipment.

A Soldier Returns

A Soldier Returns

A litigation lawyer, Martin Day, is reported as saying: ‘We find it very disconcerting that the Government of law and order seem so intent on desecrating the legal system, ignoring the safeguards the law provides for all individuals and continues to act unlawfully through its many departments including the MoD. Greater adherence to the laws, both domestic and international, are the only way in which the MoD’s litigation will decrease’.

Defence Secretary Philip Hammond commented: ‘I remain concerned about the challenge to combat immunity arising from recent court judgments. These could make it more difficult for our troops to carry out operations in the future, and they potentially throw open a wide range of military decisions to the uncertainty of litigation. It cannot be right that troops on operations have to put the European Convention on Human Rights ahead of what is operationally vital to protect our national security’.

It does not matter whether its Iraq or Afghanistan or any other, war is war and people get killed. That is what you sign up for when you join the military, and if you and your family can’t take it, then ‘get the hell out of the kitchen’!

Roy.

Why Do We Not Care For Our Soldiers?

Posted in Afghanistan, Al Quada, Britain, England, Health, Taliban, Terrorism, UK, World War 2, World War One with tags , , , on 16/07/2013 by floroy1942
Afghanistan War

Afghanistan War

I was to say the least shocked when I read a report that more UK soldiers and veterans have died after returning home than are killed in Afghanistan. According to the BBC Panorama programme, last year a total of 50 serving and ex-soldiers committed suicide since returning from the front line where they are fighting the Taliban, whereas only 44 have died in Afghanistan, and 4 of those were not action related.

Of the 50 dead, 21 killed themselves after being repatriated back to the UK, and 29 veterans also committed suicide. The Ministry of Defence (MOD) has been accused of giving insufficient care to soldiers who have suffered Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) while engaged against the Taliban. The MOD has remained coy and said only that the suicide rates among serving and ex-servicemen was lower than the civilian rate.

An Unnecessary Casualty

An Unnecessary Casualty

It is true that men in war do suffer severe mental hardship, especially when they are wounded or have a friend blown to pieces beside them by a road-side bomb, as was the case with L/Sgt Collins, a Welsh Guardsman. He was diagnosed with PTSD by the Army and given 10 months of intermittent treatment before being discharged by the doctors. He twice tried to kill himself, but eventually hung himself in a lonely spot in the Preseli mountains in Pembrokeshire.

With all of the extra knowledge the medical fraternity has gained about such problems over the past fifty years, one would imagine our soldiers get decent treatment, but it would seem that such people have been failed by the system.

WW1 - Going 'Over The Top'

WW1 – Going ‘Over The Top’

The stresses and strains of combat in today’s armed forces are somewhat different from that of the young men who went to war in 1914 and 1939, for today there are many more possibilities of the care for soldiers who have suffered mental anguish. In the 1914-18 war any soldier who suffered mental breakdown was ‘shot at dawn’ as a coward, and by the time we went into the Second World War things had improved somewhat, but nowhere near enough.

I do not wish to belittle the standards of today’s soldiers, but in these two previous wars the soldiers had to suffer far more than they do today. Back then there was no six-month rotation on the battle front, for regiments fought until they either died or were ‘almost dead on their feet’ from tiredness before being sent behind the lines for perhaps a couple of days or a week’s rest before being thrown into the fray once again. This went on for more than five long years, and the only real excuse for not being at the front-line was to be severely wounded, in which case you would be repatriated and discharged.

Normandy on D-Day

Normandy on D-Day

The front-line of today bears little comparison to going ‘over the top’ into a hail of lead from hundreds of machine guns and artillery during the First World War, when every soldier knew he had less than a 10% chance of surviving. The same can be said for storming the beaches during the Normandy Landings for example. Many will say that men were made of sterner stuff back then, even though many of our soldiers who came back suffered mental anguish just like today, but the main point is, they were left to deal with it themselves for there was no such thing as PTSD treatment like we have today, and even less understanding of the condition.

Granted, in those days you usually knew in which direction your enemy lay, but today we have hidden enemies with the detonator for a road-side bomb in the hand which does make a difference.

Which ever way you look at it, the MOD should be more able to take care of our serving soldiers and veterans, especially when you consider all the advances that have taken place since the 1940’s in understanding the mental stress of being in battle. When all is said and done, they are all hero’s!

Roy.

The Perfect Answer To “Human Rights” Nutters!

Posted in Afghanistan, Al Quada, Arab, Britain, Conservative Party, David Cameron, England, Equality, Europe, Extradition, Human Rights, Immigrants, Insurgents, Islamic Revolution, Justice, Liberal Party, Muslim, Taliban, Terrorists, UK, USA with tags , , , on 13/09/2011 by floroy1942

It would seem the crackpots are everywhere today, usually disguised as Human Rights Groups and H.R. Lawyers, and don’t they just love to stick their nasty little fingers into every pie. Criminals are let off because going to jail infringes their human rights, terrorists are molly-coddled instead of being dished out with the same medicine they give to everyone else.

It makes right-minded people sick, and many wonder how to sort them out. In my e-mail today I received the following, and although its probably not true, it would seem like a pretty good way of sorting out these misfits who meddle in everyone elses affairs. Let them complain about prisoners rights, then let’s take the following action:

A lady Canadian libertarian wrote a lot of letters to the Government, complaining about the treatment of captive insurgents (terrorists) being held in Afghanistan’s national correctional system facilities.

She received back the following reply:

National  Defence Headquarters

M Gen George R. Pearkes Bldg,  15 NT

101, Colonel By Drive

Ottawa,ON K1A  0K2

Canada

Dear Concerned Citizen,

Thank you for your recent letter expressing your profound  concern of treatment of the Taliban and Al Qaeda terrorists captured by Canadian Forces – who were subsequently transferred to the Afghanistan Government and are currently being held by Afghan officials in Afghanistan’s National Correctional System facilities. Our administration takes these matters seriously and your opinions were heard loud and clear here in  Ottawa. You will be pleased to learn, thanks to  the concerns of citizens like yourself; we are creating a new department here at the Department of National Defence, to be called ‘Liberals Accept Responsibility for Killers’ program, or L.A.R.K. for short.

In accordance with the guidelines of this new program, we have decided to divert one terrorist and place him in your personal care. Your personal detainee has been selected and is scheduled for transportation under heavily armed guard to your residence in Toronto next Monday.

Ali Mohammed Ahmed bin Mahmud (you can just call him Ahmed) is to be cared for pursuant to the standards you personally demanded in your letter of complaint. It will likely be necessary for you to hire some assistant caretakers. We will conduct weekly inspections to ensure that your standards of care for Ahmed are commensurate with those you so strongly recommend in your letter. Although Ahmed is a sociopath and extremely violent, we hope that your sensitivity to what you described as his “attitudinal problem ” will help him overcome these character flaws. Perhaps you are correct in describing these problems as mere cultural differences.

We understand that you plan to offer counselling and home schooling. Your adopted terrorist is extremely proficient in hand-to-hand combat and can extinguish human life with such simple items as a pencil or nail clippers. We advise that you do not ask him to demonstrate these skills at your next yoga group.

He is also expert at making a wide variety of explosive devices from common household products, so you may wish to keep those items locked up, unless (in your opinion) this might offend him.

Ahmed will not wish to interact with you or your daughters (except sexually) since he views females as a subhuman form of property. This is a particularly sensitive subject for him and he has been known to show violent tendencies around women who fail to comply with the new dress code that he will recommend as more appropriate attire. I’m sure you will come to enjoy the anonymity offered by the burka over time. Just remember that it is all part of ‘respecting his culture and religious beliefs’ as described in your letter.

Thanks again for your concern. We truly appreciate it when folks like you keep us informed of the proper way to do our job, and care for our fellow man. You take good care of Ahmed – and remember we’ll be  watching.

Good luck and God Bless You.

Cordially,

Gordon O’Connor  – Minister of National Defense

Perhaps the Ministry of Defence would like to take this idea up! I for one would applaud!

My thanks to the anonymous writer.

Roy.

 

Will The Current Defence Review Cost Britain the Falklands?

Posted in Atlantic, Britain, Budget Cuts, England, Government, Government Spending, Insanity, MP's, Oceans, Parliament, Royal Navy, UK with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on 27/01/2011 by floroy1942

As always, defence spending is the first thing to be cut when money is seen to be tight. And as usual, the politicians make the same stupid, short-sighted decisions. It seems the present Coalition is no different.

HMS Ark Royal

Currently, the Royal Navy is to be hit hard in that its aircraft carrier fleet is to be scrapped. True, two new carriers are supposed to be built to replace those we have now, but apart from the fact they will not be ready until somewhere around 2017, their future is now in doubt even though construction has begun, and in which £1 billion has already been invested.

Hopefully, One of The Royal Navy's New Carriers

All branches of the armed forces will be hit, but by far the most significant is the proposed phasing out of all three aircraft carriers by 2015. Ark Royal has already been decommissioned, and Invincible and Illustrious are soon to follow. This will leave Britain without a single carrier until around 2017 when, hopefully, maybe, the navy will receive their two replacements at a cost. This cost is a significant reduction in their surface ships to help pay for the new carriers.

It’s like the Falklands war of 1982 never happened!

Without her aircraft carriers, Britain would have stood helplessly by while Argentina took over the islands at their leisure after the invasion, with no amount of harsh words from Margaret Thatcher making any difference.

A Harrier Lands on Deck

As it was, our carrier force with their Harrier VTOL aircraft, was the only thing Britain had in its military arsenal that could effectively strike back at the invaders. As we all know, the entire operation was a resounding success.

But what of today and the near future?

It would seem the current government has forgotten the lessons of the past, and are ready and willing to make the same mistakes when the scrapping of the CVA01 carriers almost cost us the Falklands.

The Argentine government must be rubbing their hands in glee at the prospect of a neutered Royal Navy who will be helpless should they try again in three or four years time. I’ll bet their generals have already started making plans for a new invasion of the islands, knowing full well the British will have no choice but to stand impotent on the sidelines.

The Mighty Vulcan Bomber

Since that conflict in 1982 the RAF has also suffered significant cuts to its budget and aircraft. During the previous conflict, the Vulcan and Victor cold-war bombers played a key role with their huge range of action, bombing targets like the runway at Stanley airfield and attacking the radar installations on the island. They too are long gone! Now Britain has no bombers at all with the range to strike at the Falklands.

The Harrier fleet, which proved so effective against the Argentinean air force has been decommissioned also, but that doesn’t seem to stop the politicians from a proposal which will see a scaling down of the number of Joint-Strike fighters to be ordered.

The Falklands

As I see it, this defence review will prove to be a catastrophe for the Falkland islanders, who in my view had better start learning Argentinean, for in about four years time they will need it.

Roy.


Time to Start Shooting Compensation Tribunals!

Posted in Britain, Insanity, Modern World, UK, World War 2 with tags , , , , , , on 15/04/2010 by floroy1942

Remember the old adage “Cheats Never Prosper”, well, that was before someone invented Compensation Tribunals! A couple of days ago I gave my thoughts on the case of Tilern DeBique (Sorry! Can’t go to War Today I Must Feed My Baby 13/4/2010) But today more amazing revelations came to light. Miss DeBique is claiming compensation from the army to the tune of £1,140,000 for sex discrimination over army childcare. This amount is for loss of earnings, loss of army benefits, loss of pension rights, aggravated damages, and £18,000 for ‘hurt feelings’!

Parasite

The amount she could receive has been described as ‘indecent’ and ‘perverse’ by officials, but I say ‘plain lunacy’ would be more like it. The Board will inform her tomorrow of the exact amount she will receive. I hope it is one penny, and even that would be too much.

All this despite the army offering her a posting with childcare, which she declined because ‘she only had four days to decide’, and because she applied for a lucrative civilian job in Afghanistan.

Ben Parkinson

The most shocking thing about the whole affair is that a Para who received 37 different injuries, including losing both legs and brain damage from a land-mine, was awarded a ridiculous £152,150 compensation! After a huge outcry from the public this was increased to £570,000 with much grinding of teeth at the M.O.D.

In a similar comparison, an M.O.D office worker who strained his back lifting a printer received £207,000, but Sergeant Stephens received only £209,000 initially for multiple severe shrapnel injuries he got during a mortar attack by militants in Iraq. This was eventually increased to £317,715 when new rules came into force. An RAF typist laughed all the way to the bank with her £484,000 pay-out because she injured her thumb typing. She ‘developed’ repetitive strain injury and could not work anymore! That much for a thumb? The mind boggles!

It just goes to show how rotten and disgusting this whole ‘compensation’ scheme has become. For some people it is now a way of life, and the sad part about it is, they get away with it because these ‘Bleeding Heart’ Compensation Boards can’t wait to give other people’s money away to these ‘poor unfortunates’.

Ill-Gotten Gains

Miss DeBique and her family must think Christmas has come early, for with her credentials she wouldn’t make the amount of money she is claiming in her entire life! And on the other side of the fence are our soldiers returning from a war zone, many with horrific injuries, and they are getting peanuts by comparison.

While I don’t begrudge the injured soldiers their pay-outs, I have to wonder what all our soldiers who fought in two world wars would have to say about the compensation scheme employed and misused by so many today. They went to war to defend our nation and never had the opportunity of compensation. When they came home after the war they got nothing, not even sympathy, and many couldn’t even get a job such was the thanks of a ‘grateful nation’.

We have without doubt become a sorry excuse for humanity.

Roy.

Update:

Well, one may assume there is maybe one small shred of justice still left in the UK after Miss DeBique was awarded just £17,016 today by the Tribunal. If she dreamed of living in a mansion and driving a Ferrari on her home island of St. Vincent, then thankfully she can forget it!

She was criticised by the Board for not taking the alternate posting with child-care offered her by the army, and for not trying hard enough to find work after she left. I guess she will have to find some other way of scamming the rest of us into giving her the lifestyle she wants.

Maybe now the M.O.D will take a closer look at the advisability of having unmarried mothers in the army. Lets hope so, for if not this may be the pattern of things to come.

As for my title of shooting Compensation Board members, perhaps it will be sufficient if we just wound them……slightly!

Sorry! Can’t Go to War Today, I Must Feed My Baby!!!!

Posted in Britain, Children, England, Human Rights, Insanity, Modern World, Royal Navy, UK with tags , , , , , , , , on 13/04/2010 by floroy1942

Whatever happened to common sense and commitment? These are two ideals sadly lacking in today’s world, and we are worse off because of it. I read with total shock about a young female Caribbean recruit to the British Army who has successfully sued the Ministry of Defence, and will receive £100,000 in compensation for ‘missing a parade’ because she had to care for her child.

Tilern DuBique

Tilern DeBique, who signed on for the army during one its recruiting drives on the island of St. Vincent, came to England and joined the 10th Signal Regiment in 2001 as a Signals Technician, and had reached the rank of Corporal. When she missed a parade because she had to care for her child, she is a single mother, she was disciplined by her C.O. He told her, quite rightly, the Army is ‘a war fighting machine’, and not the place for a single mother who could not arrange care for her child.

Appearing before the Central London Employment Tribunal she said she feared she would be dismissed from the Army and left. She further stated that she was told she should be ‘available for duty 24 hours a day’. Despite this, arrangements were made by her commanders for her to work between 08.30 and 16.30 weekdays only, but it would appear this was not enough. In December 2006 she missed a training session and was absent on parade in January 2007 due to childcare difficulties. Because she felt she was going to be dismissed from the Army, she left, or as she put it to the tribunal, ‘She was forced out’! The Army said in its defence that she had the choice of an alternative posting which she did not accept.

Part of her case rested on the fact that the Army would not help her bring her half sister across from St. Vincent to care for the child. She was told, correctly, that that was an immigration question which could only be answered by the Immigration Department. Current immigration rules would have allowed the sister to remain in the UK for a maximum period of six months.

Ministry of Defence

The ramifications of this ruling may well be severe for the Ministry of Defence, for like most cases of this kind, it opens the door for any single mother in the Armed Forces to rake in a lot of quick money.

Is the Army now going to be forced to set up Day Care Centres behind the front line when it goes to war? The acceptance of female soldiers into the Forces has always been a contentious issue, but the prospect of single mothers needs to be looked at immediately. The simple rule should be: If you are single and get pregnant, you’re out!

There is a place for women in the Forces, and most of them are very good at what they do, but a single mother does not belong in anyone’s Army unless they can be available for duty 24 hours a day. That is one of the basic conditions when you sign on the dotted line, otherwise chaos would reign.

Who knows, maybe wars will only be fought during office hours in the future, but I doubt it.

I have served my time, and I must say that in my day (oh bugger! That makes me sound very old) people did the job they were paid for, without going to tribunals and demanding compensation because military duty hours did not fit in with their life style.

RAF Nicosia Cyprus

In 1965, during a panic when it was thought that Cyprus would be invaded by the Turks, I worked 72 hours straight with only an occasional catnap in a corner because that was what the job demanded. I didn’t complain to my boss that I had to get home to feed my baby, the baby-sitter could only stay until 21.30, or sorry, its the wrong time of the month!!

In times of war or tension, the Army, Navy, and in my case the RAF, require full commitment by it soldiers, sailors and airmen, and if you give short of your best then others will suffer, or at the very least, must carry part of your load.

Always Ready

In this crazy modern world of ‘Human Rights’, ‘Equality’, ‘Political Correctness’, ‘Sexual Discrimination’ and all that other bunkum, the basic standards by which our civilisation became great are getting lost in the cracks. It is sad to see a once proud and all conquering army brought to its knees by a stupid woman who wants it all!

There is little doubt the young lady in question has missed the golden rule of being a member of the Armed Forces; Single parenting and the Forces do not go together! If you cannot commit 100% to the job, find another! The only other alternative is to join the Dutch Armed Forces, they even have a Union and I am sure she would get some sympathy there!

Bah! Humbug!

Roy.


British Army Apologises to Muslims

Posted in Arab, Britain, Christianity, England, Free Speech, Hackers, Immigrants, Insanity, Insurgents, Islamic Revolution, Modern World, Religion, Theft, UK with tags , , , , , on 09/04/2010 by floroy1942

Urban Training

Yet another episode in the “Let’s not offend the Muslims” saga came to light in Britain today. The army erected mock-up buildings on a firing range at Catterick Barracks to simulate a Middle East environment so the men could practice fighting techniques in a more realistic manner, and the local Muslims have complained. They say the buildings look like mosques and were outraged. Oh Dear! What a shame, never mind!!!

The Ministry of Defence said there was no intention of representing mosques, and they were just buildings typical of the environment their men would be fighting in. However, Britain being what it is today under the Labour Government, they were forced into a climb-down and have apologised to the Muslims for this ‘insult’. Touchy touchy!

It astounds me that infidels are required to kow-tow to Muslims and not ‘insult’ their mosques at the drop of a hat, and yet Muslim insurgents show little respect for mosques by blowing them up and raking them with gunfire whenever it suits them.

Muslim Respect For Mosque

For example, last June, Islamic separatists opened fire on a mosque in Thailand during prayers killing 10 and wounding 19. No respect for the mosque there then!

It seems the Muslim population is always looking for the slightest excuse to stamp their brand on any country they move into. They fly off the handle at the slightest excuse, and I can see the day coming when it will be an insult to Allah for an infidel to even draw breath. Mind you, in their eyes it probably is already!It needs to be hammered home to these people that they do not rule the world……..yet!

The Islam Image Problem

While I respect the rights of any individual to follow whatever religion he wishes, I do have my opinions on the Islamic religion, and they may not go down too well with followers. Thank God we still have free speech here in the west…….at least for the moment.

The Islamic religion does have some good points that we of the Christian faith could learn from. For one thing, it teaches its followers respect for persons and property, something which has declined over the last forty years here in Christian countries, much to our shame. We have become decadent and far too liberal in what we condone these days.

There are certain parts of Sharia Law that I agree with, like the removal of a hand for stealing and the death penalty for murder, not that I would agree with the rest of it.

Sharia?

The idea of a public beheading for insulting Allah, or the stoning to death of a woman for adultery just does not fit in with my Christian values.

But lets face it, wouldn’t it be great to know that a thief would never be able to steal more than twice, and a killer would never do it again! I have always been of the opinion that spammers and hackers for example should have their fingers removed (try typing without fingers you bugger), and pedophiles should be castrated (live with the memory, its all you’ll have), both because of the untold misery they cause normal people. We have treated criminals like hotel guests for far too long.

Muslims Praying

As to the rest of it though, to me its akin to living in a straight-jacket in a padded room. Having to pray five times a day, wherever you are and whatever you are doing must be a little tiresome at times (recently a London bus driver stopped his bus and prayed in the aisle while the passengers looked on). Women are suppressed and denied all freedoms (except to treat their men like princes) and must hide themselves from the world. Also, to have a religion where everything non-Muslim is blasphemous must also be a strain to live with (how many times can you curse in a day?)

Mosque on Every Street Corner?

There is little doubt that Islam is on the rise, and it seems to me they will eventually take over a sizeable chunk of the world. They have parts of the Far East and Africa, Britain, and the rest of Europe in their sights at the moment, and I have little doubt that once they have conquered these via their hugely superior birth-rate over the indigenous population, they will turn to America (think of the White House or Capitol Building being turned into a mosque!).

Imagine being a second class citizen in your own country with comforts we take for granted, like a beer at the local pub, being outlawed. Women would have to wear a burqa even on the beach (no more suntan for you my girl), and the men would all walk around in night gowns!

It will take many decades, but I can see the time when most of the western world, and a large chunk of the east is Muslim under Sharia Law and all that entails. In the meantime, I urge tolerance on the part of Muslims everywhere who think the world was made for them alone.

I may not be Enoch Powell, but even I can see the writing on the wall! I just thank God I will not be around to see it!

Roy.


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